Zoned SSD – A zoned SSD has its capacity divided into separate namespace areas or zones which are used for data with different IO types and characteristics – read-intensive, write-intensive, mixed, JPEGs, video, etc. Data can only be appended to existing data in a zone, being written sequentially. Typically small writes are aggregated together (batched up) by the zone management software into a 4KB chunk and written in a single operation to the drive. A zone must be erased for its cells to be rewritten. This means unchanging data blocks are not disturbed by deletions of small data items in the same blocks – which would eventually trigger a garbage collection process. This all leads to better flash management and endurance.