PIM – Processor-in-Memory – the addition of processing elements to DRAM to reduce data movement and speed processing. PIM technology was announced by Samsung in 2021. It was implemented by modifying the firm’s commercial HBM2 Aquabolt high-performance memory components. The resulting Aquabolt-XL was designed to combat the memory interconnect bottleneck that can throttle the performance of applications such as AI and ML that require an increasing amount of memory bandwidth. This was achieved by embedding a programmable computing unit (PCU) inside each memory bank, minimising the need for data movement.