DNA Storage – DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a biopolymer molecule composed of two chains in a double helix formation, and carrying genetic information. The chains are made up from nucleotides containing one of four nucleobases; cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and thymine (T). DNA data storage encodes binary data (base 2 numbering scheme) into a 4-element coding scheme using the four DNA nucleic acid bases. For example, 00 = A, 01 = C, 10 = G and 11 = T. This transformed data is encoded into short DNA fragments and packed inside some kind of container, such as a glass bead, for preservation. One gram of DNA can theoretically store almost a zettabyte of digital data – one trillion gigabytes. Such fragments can be read in a DNA sequencing operation. They are tiny and can theoretically last for thousands of years or more.